Types of Wireless Network Explained with Standards

This tutorial explains Wireless Network types (WLANS, WPANS, WMANS and WWANS) and Wireless network terminology (Ad hoc mode, Infrastructure mode, BSS, ESS, BSA, SSID, WEP, EAP, WPA, WPA2, Infrared, Bluetooth, FHSS, DSSS, FHSS, OFDM, MIMO, RF, Omni directional, 802.11g, 802.11a and 802.11h ) in detail. A wireless network enables people to communicate and access applications and information without wires. This provides freedom of movement and the ability to extend applications to different parts Read more […]

Configure Extended Access Control List Step by Step Guide

This tutorial explains how to configure and manage Extended Access Control List step by step in detail. Learn how to create, enable, edit, verify, update, remove (individual or all) and delete Extended ACL statements and conditions in easy language with packet tracer examples. For demonstration purpose I will use packet tracer network simulator software. You can use it or can use any other network simulator software such as Boson, NetSim, GNS etc. If require, you can download the latest as Read more […]

Access Points and Wireless LAN Controllers Explained

This tutorial explains the functionalities of the Access points and the Wireless LAN controllers in detail. Learn what the Access points and the Wireless LAN controllers are and how they work in the wireless network. This tutorial is the part of the CCNA Study Guide. It explains the following CCNA topic. Describe the impact of infrastructure components in an enterprise network. 1.3.b Access points 1.3.c Wireless controllers Access point An access point is the device that allows Read more […]

Types of Firewall Explained with Functions and Features

This tutorial explains the basic functions and features of the firewall in detail with examples. Learn what the firewall is and how it protects the network resources from unauthorized access. This tutorial is the part of the CCNA Study Guide. It explains the following CCNA topic. Describe the impact of infrastructure components in an enterprise network. 1.3.a Firewalls What is the firewall? Firewall is a protective layer. Based on the pre-configured rules, it monitors and controls each Read more […]

Switch Stacking Explained with Benefits

This tutorial explains the basic concepts of the Switch Stacking in detail. Learn what the Switch Stacking is and what benefits it provides in networking. What is the Switch Stacking? The Switch Stacking is a feature that allows us to configure multiple Cisco switches in a way that they appear as a single switch and act cooperatively. For example, if you have five individual Cisco switches, the Switch Stacking allows you to use all of them as a single large switch. The following image shows Read more […]

Basic Concepts of Ethernet LAN Explained

This tutorial describes the basic concepts of Ethernet LAN in detail. Learn what the Ethernet LAN is and what are the differences between SOHO LAN and Enterprise LAN. An Ethernet LAN is the combination of components that allows users to access applications and data, share resources and connect with other networks. Common components of an Ethernet LAN are; User devices (such as Computers, PCs, Servers and Network printers), Network devices (LAN switches, hubs, firewalls, so on) and different Read more […]

Straight Through and Cross over Cable

This tutorial explains how to make the cross-over cable and straight-through cable in detail with picture examples. Learn how the UTP cable transfers data between two nodes or end devices. Before we learn how to make a straight-through or cross-cable, let\’s understand how the UTP cable transfers the data. How does the UTP cable work? In UTP cable, electronic signals are used to transmit and receive the data. A UTP cable connects two nodes. In data transmission, one node sends data and another Read more […]

How Switch learns the MAC addresses Explained

This tutorial explains how the switch learns the MAC addresses. Learn what the CAM table is and how the switch dynamically stores the MAC addresses of the connected devices in it. The CAM table To make accurate forwarding and filtering decisions, the switch learns and stores the MAC addresses of all connected devices. The switch stores the learned MAC addresses in a table that is known as the CAM table. In old days of switching, when the bridges were used to be in the networking, a special Read more […]

How Switches Forward Frames Explained

This tutorial explains how the switch forwards and filters the MAC addresses. Learn how the switch processes incoming frames along with the types of frames which the switch always floods. To send a large amount of data to other PC in the network, the sender PC breaks the data in several smaller pieces and packs each piece with the protocol information which the receiver PC needs to reassemble all pieces back into the original data stream. To know what else information each piece contains Read more […]

Layer 2 Switching Loops in Network Explained

This tutorial explains what the layer 2 switching loop is and how it occurs in the network. Understand what the broadcast storm is and how the switching loop creates it. For backup purposes, we usually create redundant links. A redundant link is an additional link that we create as the backup link of the primary link. If the primary link fails, the redundant link prevents the network from getting down due to the primary link failure. The redundant or backup link is helpful only when the primary Read more […]