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CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner (CASP) Recertification Exam for Continuing Education

Question No: 1 – (Topic 1)

A multi-national company has a highly mobile workforce and minimal IT infrastructure. The company utilizes a BYOD and social media policy to integrate presence technology into global collaboration tools by individuals and teams. As a result of the dispersed employees and frequent international travel, the company is concerned about the safety of employees and their families when moving in and out of certain countries. Which of the following could the company view as a downside of using presence technology?

  1. Insider threat

  2. Network reconnaissance

  3. Physical security

  4. Industrial espionage

Answer: C Explanation:

If all company users worked in the same office with one corporate network and using company supplied laptops, then it is easy to implement all sorts of physical security controls. Examples of physical security include intrusion detection systems, fire protection systems, surveillance cameras or simply a lock on the office door.

However, in this question we have dispersed employees using their own devices and frequently traveling internationally. This makes it extremely difficult to implement any kind of physical security.

Physical security is the protection of personnel, hardware, programs, networks, and data from physical circumstances and events that could cause serious losses or damage to an enterprise, agency, or institution. This includes protection from fire, natural disasters, burglary, theft, vandalism, and terrorism.

Question No: 2 – (Topic 1)

An organization is concerned with potential data loss in the event of a disaster, and created a backup datacenter as a mitigation strategy. The current storage method is a single NAS used by all servers in both datacenters. Which of the following options increases data availability in the event of a datacenter failure?

  1. Replicate NAS changes to the tape backups at the other datacenter.

  2. Ensure each server has two HBAs connected through two routes to the NAS.

  3. Establish deduplication across diverse storage paths.

  4. Establish a SAN that replicates between datacenters.

Answer: D Explanation:

A SAN is a Storage Area Network. It is an alternative to NAS storage. SAN replication is a technology that replicates the data on one SAN to another SAN; in this case, it would replicate the data to a SAN in the backup datacenter. In the event of a disaster, the SAN in the backup datacenter would contain all the data on the original SAN.

Array-based replication is an approach to data backup in which compatible storage arrays use built-in software to automatically copy data from one storage array to another. Array- based replication software runs on one or more storage controllers resident in disk storage systems, synchronously or asynchronously replicating data between similar storage array models at the logical unit number (LUN) or volume block level. The term can refer to the creation of local copies of data within the same array as the source data, as well as the creation of remote copies in an array situated off site.

Question No: 3 – (Topic 1)

Company ABC’s SAN is nearing capacity, and will cause costly downtimes if servers run out disk space. Which of the following is a more cost effective alternative to buying a new SAN?

  1. Enable multipath to increase availability

  2. Enable deduplication on the storage pools

  3. Implement snapshots to reduce virtual disk size

  4. Implement replication to offsite datacenter

Answer: B Explanation:

Storage-based data deduplication reduces the amount of storage needed for a given set of files. It is most effective in applications where many copies of very similar or even identical data are stored on a single disk.

It is common for multiple copies of files to exist on a SAN. By eliminating (deduplicating) repeated copies of the files, we can reduce the disk space used on the existing SAN. This solution is a cost effective alternative to buying a new SAN.

Question No: 4 – (Topic 1)

A developer has implemented a piece of client-side JavaScript code to sanitize a user’s provided input to a web page login screen. The code ensures that only the upper case and lower case letters are entered in the username field, and that only a 6-digit PIN is entered in the password field. A security administrator is concerned with the following web server log:

10.235.62.11 – – [02/Mar/2014:06:13:04] “GET

/site/script.php?user=adminamp;pass=pass or 1=1 HTTP/1.1″ 200 5724

Given this log, which of the following is the security administrator concerned with and which fix should be implemented by the developer?

  1. The security administrator is concerned with nonprintable characters being used to gain administrative access, and the developer should strip all nonprintable characters.

  2. The security administrator is concerned with XSS, and the developer should normalize Unicode characters on the browser side.

  3. The security administrator is concerned with SQL injection, and the developer should implement server side input validation.

  4. The security administrator is concerned that someone may log on as the administrator, and the developer should ensure strong passwords are enforced.

Answer: C Explanation:

The code in the question is an example of a SQL Injection attack. The code ‘1=1’ will always provide a value of true. This can be included in statement designed to return all rows in a SQL table.

In this question, the administrator has implemented client-side input validation. Client-side validation can be bypassed. It is much more difficult to bypass server-side input validation.

SQL injection is a code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution (e.g. to dump the database contents to the attacker). SQL injection must exploit a security vulnerability in an application#39;s software, for example, when user input is either incorrectly filtered for string literal escape characters embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and unexpectedly executed. SQL injection is mostly known as an attack vector for websites but can be used to attack any type of SQL database.

Question No: 5 – (Topic 1)

The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) at a large organization has been reviewing some security-related incidents at the organization and comparing them to current industry trends. The desktop security engineer feels that the use of USB storage devices on office computers has contributed to the frequency of security incidents. The CISO knows the acceptable use policy prohibits the use of USB storage devices. Every user receives a popup warning about this policy upon login. The SIEM system produces a report of USB violations on a monthly basis; yet violations continue to occur.

Which of the following preventative controls would MOST effectively mitigate the logical risks associated with the use of USB storage devices?

  1. Revise the corporate policy to include possible termination as a result of violations

  2. Increase the frequency and distribution of the USB violations report

  3. Deploy PKI to add non-repudiation to login sessions so offenders cannot deny the offense

  4. Implement group policy objects

Answer: D Explanation:

A Group Policy Object (GPO) can apply a common group of settings to all computers in Windows domain.

One GPO setting under the Removable Storage Access node is: All removable storage classes: Deny all access.

This setting can be applied to all computers in the network and will disable all USB storage devices on the computers.

Question No: 6 – (Topic 1)

Joe, a penetration tester, is tasked with testing the security robustness of the protocol between a mobile web application and a RESTful application server. Which of the following security tools would be required to assess the security between the mobile web application and the RESTful application server? (Select TWO).

  1. Jailbroken mobile device

  2. Reconnaissance tools

  3. Network enumerator

  4. HTTP interceptor

  5. Vulnerability scanner

  6. Password cracker

Answer: D,E Explanation:

Communications between a mobile web application and a RESTful application server will use the HTTP protocol. To capture the HTTP communications for analysis, you should use an HTTP Interceptor.

To assess the security of the application server itself, you should use a vulnerability scanner.

A vulnerability scan is the automated process of proactively identifying security vulnerabilities of computing systems in a network in order to determine if and where a system can be exploited and/or threatened. While public servers are important for communication and data transfer over the Internet, they open the door to potential security breaches by threat agents, such as malicious hackers.

Vulnerability scanning employs software that seeks out security flaws based on a database of known flaws, testing systems for the occurrence of these flaws and generating a report of the findings that an individual or an enterprise can use to tighten the network#39;s security. Vulnerability scanning typically refers to the scanning of systems that are connected to the Internet but can also refer to system audits on internal networks that are not connected to the Internet in order to assess the threat of rogue software or malicious employees in an enterprise.

Question No: 7 – (Topic 1)

A security administrator has been asked to select a cryptographic algorithm to meet the criteria of a new application. The application utilizes streaming video that can be viewed both on computers and mobile devices. The application designers have asked that the algorithm support the transport encryption with the lowest possible performance overhead. Which of the following recommendations would BEST meet the needs of the application designers? (Select TWO).

  1. Use AES in Electronic Codebook mode

  2. Use RC4 in Cipher Block Chaining mode

  3. Use RC4 with Fixed IV generation

  4. Use AES with cipher text padding

  5. Use RC4 with a nonce generated IV

  6. Use AES in Counter mode

Answer: E,F Explanation:

In cryptography, an initialization vector (IV) is a fixed-size input to a cryptographic primitive

that is typically required to be random or pseudorandom. Randomization is crucial for encryption schemes to achieve semantic security, a property whereby repeated usage of the scheme under the same key does not allow an attacker to infer relationships between segments of the encrypted message.

Some cryptographic primitives require the IV only to be non-repeating, and the required randomness is derived internally. In this case, the IV is commonly called a nonce (number used once), and the primitives are described as stateful as opposed to randomized. This is because the IV need not be explicitly forwarded to a recipient but may be derived from a common state updated at both sender and receiver side. An example of stateful encryption schemes is the counter mode of operation, which uses a sequence number as a nonce.

AES is a block cipher. Counter mode turns a block cipher into a stream cipher. It generates the next keystream block by encrypting successive values of a quot;counterquot;. The counter can be any function which produces a sequence which is guaranteed not to repeat for a long time, although an actual increment-by-one counter is the simplest and most popular.

Question No: 8 – (Topic 1)

A pentester must attempt to crack passwords on a windows domain that enforces strong complex passwords. Which of the following would crack the MOST passwords in the shortest time period?

  1. Online password testing

  2. Rainbow tables attack

  3. Dictionary attack

  4. Brute force attack

Answer: B Explanation:

The passwords in a Windows (Active Directory) domain are encrypted.

When a password is quot;triedquot; against a system it is quot;hashedquot; using encryption so that the actual password is never sent in clear text across the communications line. This prevents eavesdroppers from intercepting the password. The hash of a password usually looks like a bunch of garbage and is typically a different length than the original password. Your password might be quot;shitzuquot; but the hash of your password would look something like quot;7378347eedbfdd761619451949225ec1quot;.

To verify a user, a system takes the hash value created by the password hashing function on the client computer and compares it to the hash value stored in a table on the server. If

the hashes match, then the user is authenticated and granted access.

Password cracking programs work in a similar way to the login process. The cracking program starts by taking plaintext passwords, running them through a hash algorithm, such as MD5, and then compares the hash output with the hashes in the stolen password file. If it finds a match then the program has cracked the password.

Rainbow Tables are basically huge sets of precomputed tables filled with hash values that are pre-matched to possible plaintext passwords. The Rainbow Tables essentially allow hackers to reverse the hashing function to determine what the plaintext password might be. The use of Rainbow Tables allow for passwords to be cracked in a very short amount of time compared with brute-force methods, however, the trade-off is that it takes a lot of storage (sometimes Terabytes) to hold the Rainbow Tables themselves.

Question No: 9 – (Topic 1)

Joe, a hacker, has discovered he can specifically craft a webpage that when viewed in a browser crashes the browser and then allows him to gain remote code execution in the context of the victim’s privilege level. The browser crashes due to an exception error when a heap memory that is unused is accessed. Which of the following BEST describes the application issue?

  1. Integer overflow

  2. Click-jacking

  3. Race condition

  4. SQL injection

  5. Use after free

  6. Input validation

Answer: E Explanation:

Use-After-Free vulnerabilities are a type of memory corruption flaw that can be leveraged by hackers to execute arbitrary code.

Use After Free specifically refers to the attempt to access memory after it has been freed, which can cause a program to crash or, in the case of a Use-After-Free flaw, can potentially result in the execution of arbitrary code or even enable full remote code execution capabilities.

According to the Use After Free definition on the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) website, a Use After Free scenario can occur when quot;the memory in question is allocated to another pointer validly at some point after it has been freed. The original pointer to the freed memory is used again and points to somewhere within the new allocation. As the

data is changed, it corrupts the validly used memory; this induces undefined behavior in the process.quot;

Question No: 10 – (Topic 1)

ABC Corporation has introduced token-based authentication to system administrators due to the risk of password compromise. The tokens have a set of HMAC counter-based codes and are valid until they are used. Which of the following types of authentication mechanisms does this statement describe?

  1. TOTP

  2. PAP

  3. CHAP

  4. HOTP

Answer: D Explanation:

The question states that the HMAC counter-based codes and are valid until they are used. These are “one-time” use codes.

HOTP is an HMAC-based one-time password (OTP) algorithm.

HOTP can be used to authenticate a user in a system via an authentication server. Also, if some more steps are carried out (the server calculates subsequent OTP value and sends/displays it to the user who checks it against subsequent OTP value calculated by his token), the user can also authenticate the validation server.

Both hardware and software tokens are available from various vendors. Hardware tokens implementing OATH HOTP tend to be significantly cheaper than their competitors based on proprietary algorithms. Some products can be used for strong passwords as well as OATH HOTP.

Software tokens are available for (nearly) all major mobile/smartphone platforms.

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